Childhood adversities as risk factors for onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour.
Bruffaerts R1, Demyttenaere K, Borges G, Haro JM, Chiu WT, Hwang I, Karam EG, Kessler RC, Sampson N, Alonso J, Andrade LH, Angermeyer M, Benjet C, Bromet E, de Girolamo G, de Graaf R, Florescu S, Gureje O, Horiguchi I, Hu C, Kovess V, Levinson D, Posada-Villa J, Sagar R, Scott K, Tsang A, Vassilev SM, Williams DR, Nock MK.
Suicide is the leading cause of death worldwide, but the exact effect of setbacks in childhood as risk factors for the onset and perseverance of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plans and attempts) are not well understood.
Setbacks in childhood were associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt and ideation in both bivariate and multivariate models (odds ratio range 1.2-5.7). The risk has increased with the number of experiences, but to a decreasing extent.
Sexual and physical abuse were usually the strongest risk factors for both the onset and perseverance of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. Links remained similar after additional adjustment for the lifelong mental disorder status of the respondents.
Setbacks in childhood (especially intrusive or aggressive setbacks) are powerful predictors of the onset and persistent suicidal behavior.
Meta-analysis: Childhood trauma & suicide attempt
Childhood trauma and suicide attempt: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of the past decade.
Zatti C1, Rosa V2, Barros A2, Valdivia L2, Calegaro VC3, Freitas LH2, Cereser KMM2, Rocha NSD2, Bastos AG4, Schuch FB2.
Abstract: Childhood trauma (CT) is a modifiable risk factor for life-long suicide attempts (SA). The extent to which each type of CT increases the SA risk is unclear. This study aims at a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published over the past 10 years on the relationship between CT and lifelong SA risks. The PUBMED, PsycINFO, ISI and EMBASE databases were searched for cohort studies that AS
follow-up and include an assessment of CT. A meta-analysis was performed to identify potential effects of each type of CT on SA. Seven unique studies were included for assessment. Sexual (n = 6, OR = 3.73, 95% CI 2.94-4.75, p <0.001), physical (n = 6, OR = 4.11, 95%) CI 2.30-7.33, p <0.001) and emotional abuse 3, OR = 3.98, 95% CI 2.89-5.64, p <0.001), as well as physical neglect (n = 2, OR = 3.42, 95% CI 2.09-5.59, p <0.001), were associated with SA. Emotional neglect and a broken home were not significantly associated with further SA. The modes of CT that contribute most to SA in later life are physical, emotional and sexual abuse and physical neglect, in descending order.
Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patient
Childhoodtrauma is associated with suicidal behavior, but this aspect has not been studied in connection with schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide on the 34-point Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). It was found that schizophrenics who had attempted suicide were considerable
higher CTQ scores for emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect than patients with schizophrenia who have never attempted suicide. Therefore, child abuse can be a risk factor that makes schizophrenic patients switch to suicide more quickly.
People with PTSD have an increased risk of suicide. Factors such as a coexisting depression, loneliness, isolation, adverse reactions or lack of understanding about the anger feelings and expressions towards others makes people with PTSD tend sometimes to impulsive suicide. Often people with PTSD who are not heard or are not recognized as having traumatic experiences and thus having PTSD and had tried all kinds of things are at greater risk. Anger can turn inwards and give the idea that one cannot live with these memories, anger en flashbacks. According to the CBS - Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics - , in 2015 1.871 people have put an end to their lives. Unfortunately it seems to increase each year. Men have a greater share in this than women. Yet often suicide thoughts or plans is for many mental healthcare workers taboo. Many think that talking about suicide will bring someone on ideas and that it is better to keep it undisclosed.
Certainly we think that's the case if someone is already suffering from a depression. But as we used to think that about talking about psychotic experiences could provoke a psychosis, so we tend to think that talking about suicide leads to a suicideattemp. We are afraid that it will lead to one. The most difficult to treat and recognize are impulsive suicides. Yet it is known which clients are a risk factor and that are also people with PTSD. Finally I heard that in the US everyday 22 veterans with PTSD take their own live. A shocking fact, that shows how desperate those men felt.